THIRTEEN UNITED STATES
IN CONGRESS JULY 4, 1776
When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the
political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth,
the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation .
We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of
Happiness. Tat to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among men , deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed. That whenever any Form of Government becomes
destructive of these ends, it is the Right of The People to alter or to abolish it and to institute new
Government, laying its foundation on such principals and organizing its powers in such form as to
them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for
light and transient causes, and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more to suffer, while evils are sufferable , than to right themselves by abolishing the form to which that are accustomed.
But when a long train of abuses and usurpation’s pursuing invariably invariably the same
object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty,
to throw off such Government and to provide new Guards for their future security.
Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government .
The history of the present King of Great Britain , George III, is a history of repeated injuries and usurpation all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States.
To prove this let facts be submitted to a candid world. He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the pubic good.
He had forbidden his Government to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance , unless,
suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained and when so suspended he has utterly
neglected to attend them.
He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large district of people unless
these people would relinquish the right of representation in Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, distant from depository of Public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with is measures.
He has dissolved Representative house repeatedly for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the Rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time after such dissolution’s to cause others to be elected, whereby
the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihillation , have returned to the People at Large for their exercise, the State remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States for that purpose of obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners , refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice by refusing his Assent of Laws for establishing
He has made Judges dependent n his will alone for the tenure of their office and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices and sent hither swarms of Officers to harass our people and eat out their substance.
He has in time of peace kept a Standing Army without consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the civil Power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution and unacknowledged by our Laws, giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation. For protecting them by mock trial from punishment for Murders they commit on inhabitants of the States , cutting our
Trade with all parts of the world , imposing Taxes without consent, depriving the benefits of Trial by Jury, transporting us beyond seas to be tried for offences, abolishing the System of English Laws, Establishment Arbitary government, suspended our Legislatures, declaring himself invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here by declaring us out of his Protection and waging war against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coast, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting Armies of foreign mercenaries to complete works of death,
desolation and tyranny.
He has taken our Citizens captive on high seas and cause them to bear arms against us.
He has excited domestic insurrections and endeavored to bring our Indians upon us with their destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions. In every stage of these oppressions WE have petitioned for Redress in most humble terms that are answered by repeated injury.
Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren and warned them of attempts of their Legislature, to extend unwarrantable jurisdiction over us, reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice, they too are deaf to the voice of justice, so we hold them as the rest of mankind, Enemies in War.
We, therefore, Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appeal to the Supreme Judge of mankind , do, in the Name, and by the authority of the
good People of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare.
That these United Colonies are and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States, that they are Absolved from the Allegiance to the British Crown, that all political connection between them and Great Britain be totally dissolved and as Free and Independent States have Power to levy War, conclude peace, establish Alliances and Commerce, and do other Acts they may do as Independent States. We mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and Sacred Honor.
Signed, Sealed and Published, July 4, 1776
ABSTRACT: Harrison Howeth,, July 2, 2017 of Roots Digest, Vol 12, issue 181, Eliz Hanebury's “Happy Birthday America” Friday 30 June 2017, Xfinity.com